A large part of Ukraine's industrial output is produced by Kyiv's enterprises: motorcycles, tape recorders, excavators, chemical fibres, industrial machines, precision tools and instruments, electrical equipment, audio and video equipment, furniture, clothing, foodstuffs, etc.
Kyiv is the major transportation hub of Ukraine. It has five railway stations; a domestic airport near Zhuliany and on international one near Boryspil and an important river port. Six major bridges join Left- and Right-Bank Kyiv: Paton and Moscow automobile bridges, the Podil and Darnytsia railway bridges, the Metro Bridge, and the pedestrian Park Bridge.
Kyiv is the cultural and academic center of Ukraine. Research institutes, the National Scientific Library, the Central Botanical Garden, and the Main Astronomical Observatory are located there. There is a great number of post-secondary schools (universities, institutes, colleges), secondary specialized schools, and elementary schools in Kyiv. Kyiv's libraries include Ukraine's largest ó the National Scientific Library (over 10 million volumes), the National Parliamentary Library, Medical, Agricultural, and Technical libraries, libraries at post-secondary schools, and city central libraries for adults, youth, and children.
There are government-funded museums in Kyiv: the Natural' History Museum; the Historical Museum; the museums of art: National Art, Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art, Russian Art, Western and Eastern Art, Theater, Music, and Cinema Arts; Kyiv Cave Historical-Cultural Preserve; St. Sophia Museum; Museum of Kyiv's History; Museum of Ukraine's Literature; Shevchenko Museum; Museums of Historical Treasures, Sports Fame, Pedagogy, Book and Book Printing, and Folk Architecture and Folkways; some literary-memorial museums; the Kosyi Kaponir Museum (a former tsarist prison); and the Memorial Complex of the Great Patriotic War. There are also museums organized and run by private individuals.
The main professional theaters in Kyiv are: the National Opera, Ukrainian Drama Theater, Russian Drama Theater, Operetta Theater, House of Organ and Chamber Music, Puppet Theater, Theater of Comedy and Drama, Young People's Theater. Professional musical ensembles include the National Philharmonic, Dumka Choru, State Banduryst Kapelle, Chamber Orchestra, Chamber Choir, Veriovka State Choir, Symphony Orchestra, Revutsky Men's Chorus, Vir-sky State Dance Ensemble, Folk Instrument Orchestra, and others.
Kyiv has been the center of Ukrainian film and mass media. In 1928 the Dovzhenko Artistic Film Studio was founded there. Also located in Kyiv are the Studio of Chronicle and Documentary Films, the Studio of Popular Science Films, etc. Kyiv has had radio stations since 1927. TV programs are broadcast daily from a new TV center.
Many monuments have been erected in Kyiv's squares, parks, and other public places. The oldest are the monuments to the Magdeburg law on the right bank of the Dnieper (by A. Melensky, 1802-8), St. Volodymyr in Volodymyr Hill park (by P. Klodt and V.Demut-Malyflovsky, 1853), and B. Khmelnytsky in St. Sophia Square (by M. Mikeshin, 1888). Most have been erected to honor Ukrainian cultural, political and scholarly figures, and the heroes and victims of the wars and the Chornobyi accident. They include monuments to T. Shevchenko (1939), I. Franko (1956), O. Dovzhenko (1964), M. Lysenko (1965), L. Ukrainka (1965, 1973), M. Rylsky (1968), M. Zankovets-ka (1974), H. Skovoroda (1976), etc. There are also commemorative plates on hundreds of buildings where prominent individuals lived.