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Hetmans

In the Polish Kingdom in the 16th century local military commanders and administrators were known as hetmans. The title was also used for the supreme military commander both in Poland and in Lithuania. At the end of the 16th c. the Commander of the Cossacks originally known as the elder (starshyi), also became known as the hetman. The first Cossack hetmans included K. Kosynky, S. Nalyvaiko, P. Sahaidachny, and D. Fe-dorovych.
The hetman was the head of the Cossack state. In this capacity he had broad powers as the supreme commander of the Cossack army; the chief administrator and financial officer, the top legislator, and the supreme judge as well. The first hetman who was also head of the state was B. Khmelnytsky.
The more important hetmans of all Ukraine were B. Khmelnytsky (1648-57), I. Vyhovsky (1657-9), and Yu. Khmelnytsky (1659-63). Renowned Right-Bank hetmans included P. Tete-ria (1663-5), P. Doroshenko (1665-76), and Yu. Khmelnytsky (1667-81), while Left-Bank hetmans included I. Briuk-hovetsky (1663-8), D. Mnohohrishny (1669-72), I. Samoilovych (1672-87), I. Mazepa (1687-1709), I. Skoropad-sky (1709-22), P. Polubotok (1722-4), D. Apostol (1727-4), and K. Rozu-movsky (1750-64).


 
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