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Hlukhiv

The Church of Three Sts Anastasias
The Church of Three Sts Anastasias
Regional center Hlukhiv (35,900 residents) is situated on the banks of Esman River. For the first time the Ipatiivsky Chronicle mentions it in 1152 as a city of Chernihiv Principality. As of 1239, Hlukhiv was the center of principality subjugated to the Gold Horde for over one hundred years. In the mid-14th c. the city passed into the hands of Lithuania, then Muscovy, and from 1618 - Rzeczpospolita. Polish domination lasted up to the annexation of the Left-Bank Ukraine by Muscovy in 1654, whereupon Hlukhiv became the center of the Nizhyn regiment's sotnia of the same name. Hlukhiv reached its heyday in the 18th c. After the Russians annihilated Baturyn in 1708, Hlukhiv became the residence of Left-Bank het-mans. Peter I visited it six months before the Poltava battle and named it in one of his ukases a noble and great city.

The Malorussian collegium (an administration established to govern Ukraine) was founded here in 1722; the first imperial school for training of singers and musicians for Russian court chorus and orchestra lasted in Hluhiv for twenty-five years and more. Among its pupils were such famous Hlukhiv composers as M.Berezovsky and D.Bortniansky. The fire of 1748 destroyed Hlukhiv, and last Hetman of Ukraine K. Rozumovsky gained his ends and returned the capital to Baturyn. In the next thirty years, Hlukhiv underwent reconstruction; architect I. Kvasov pioneered the centralized regular urban planning in Ukraine. After liquidation of Malorussian collegium (1786) Hlukhiv degrades into an ordinary town of traders and handcrafters, the life of which in the second half of the 19th c. was a bit enlivened by sugar manufacturer I. Gerashchenko, who made it a Left-Bank center of corn trade and sugar industry.

Now Hlukhiv is a provincial city in the north; several buildings are the only reminders of its past grandeur and importance. The St. Nicholas Church is the oldest Ukrainian Baroque building for public worship created by local master M. Yefymov in 1695. The belltower (1871) made forms look more accomplished.

The Church of Transfiguration (1765) replaced the wooden one destroyed by fire in 1748. The Triumphal Gate (1785, architect I. Kvasov) is the oldest civil building in Hlukhiv. This enormous arched passage tunnel with annexes on both sides bears traits of Classicism and Baroque. Brothers Tereschenkos sponsored building of the Church of Three Sts Anastasias (1884-1893, architect A. Hun), which is a diminished copy of the St. Volodymyr Cathedral in Kyiv. Its interior boasts white marble iconostasis and walls painted by brothers Svidomskys. The water tower on city heights is an original communal landmark of the early 20th c. The mace-like tower looks attractive; this highest construction in the city is used as an observation deck. Fellow-citizens gave great composers M. Berezovsky and D. Bortniansky their due only in the years of independence of Ukraine and erected monuments in the city garden. Even without inscriptions, one can discern the successful court composer from the tragic musician.


 
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