In Old Rus monasteries were the first venues of sciences. A major such venue, of the 18th century was Kyiv Mohyla Academy. In the 19th c. the universities of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa and Lviv became noted research centers where the first national schools of sciences took shape.
Much credit in the development of Ukrainian science is due to M. Os-trohradsky (mathematics), O. Bodiansky (linguistics), V. Antonovych (history), M. Maksymovych (ethnography and plant physiology), V. Obraztsov, F. Ya-novsky, V. Karavaiev, O. Bets, M. Stra-zhesko, M. Volkovych, and V. Filatov (medicine).
The creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1918 was an event of historic import. Among its founding members were V. Vernadsky, a famous 20th c. scientist and naturalist; noted historians M. Hrushevsky and D. Ba-halii; orientalist A. Krymsky; mechanics expert S. Tymoshenko; lawyer M. Vasyl-enko, and many others. Associated with the Academy are the names of outstanding scientists, among them physician and mathematician M. Boholiubov, biologist M. Kashchenko, microbiologist and ep-idemologist D. Zabolotny, ó botanists Ye. Votchal, O. Fomin, M. Kholodny, archaeologist and etnographer M. Bilia-shivsky, zoologist I. Schmalhauzen, economist K. Vobly, and demographer M. Ptukha. World-reputed schools appeared, headed by D. Hrave (algebra), M. Krylov (mathematical physics), Ye. Paton (electric welding and bridge construction), L. Pysarzhevsky (chemistry), O. Dynnyk (mechanics and elasticity theory), O. Bohomolets (experimental pathology).
At present, the National Academy of Sciences comprises 170 research centers with powerful research-and-productive facilities. All told, there are some 2,500 Doctors and 10,000 Candidates of Science. There are 208 Academicians and 280 Corresponding members, plus 81 foreign members from 18 countries, including the USA, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Japan.
The National Academy of Ukraine ranks with Europe's leading scientific venues. Among its attainments are outstanding accomplishments in natural history and technology, along with tangible contributions to sociology and the humanities.
Since 1962 its President has been Boris Paton, a noted scientist, organizer, honorary member of academies in many countries.
A great deal has been done in the leading sciences over the past several years. Thus, the world's first laser data storage came as the result of complex developments by experts on informatics, physics, physical metallurgy and chemistry. World priorities have a number of achievements in machinebuilding, rocket and computer technology, molecular biology, genetic engineering, microbiology and medicine.
The National Academy of Ukraine maintains and expands international contacts with academies and research associations and centers in many countries. Over the past several years research and technological cooperation treaties and agreements have been signed with many countries.