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Vasylkiv

Vasylkiv
 
Vasylkiv (37,300 residents) is a regional center situated on the steep slopes of Stuhna Valley. It was founded in 988 by Prince Volodymyr the Great and at first was named after his Christian name Vasyliv. In time of Kyivan Rus, it was a well-fortified stronghold with ramparts and ditches often used as a strongpoint by constantly quarreling princes. In 1157, the town was named Vasylkiv in honor of its new owner, son of Kyiv Prince Vasylko Yuriyovych. After the devastating raid of Mongols in 1240, the town fell into decay and in a century turned into a dilapidating village. Only in 1570s the Kyiv Cave Monastery began to restore its ancestral lands and built new fortifications (there are still fragments of ramparts), and in 1586 the monastery obtained Magdeburg Right for the town. During the Liberation war of 1648-1654, this was the town of Kyiv sotnia. In 1786, the property of Kyiv Cave Monastery underwent secularization, and in 1797 the Right-Bank Ukraine was ceded to the Russian Empire. In the 18th c. the newly-erected buildings included the Cathedral of Sts. Anthony and Theodosius (1756-1758, architect S.Kovnir), a well-placed, laconic Ukrainian Baroque building, and St. Nicholas Church (1792), which combined classical style with the elements of Baroque. The traditional design of the interior is typical of Orthodox churches of modern Ukraine; it combines the Orthodox strictness and domestic comfort of provincial public place. Despite the loss of the status of boundary town, it remained a permanent military post. In 1821 a secret revolution ary organization - the Southern Society of Decembrists - was created in Tulchyn. One of three headquarters of Ukrainian sections, headed by S. Muravyov-Apostol and Bestuzhev-Riumin, was located in Vasylkiv. On the eve of 1826, the mutineers of Chernihiv regiment seized the city, but as soon as in a week the mutiny-was crushed, in the FSU the Decembrists were highly esteemed and called the precursors of October Revolution in Russia in 1917 There is a Decembrists' Memorial Sign (1976) in a town square erected to mark the 150 Anniversary (sculptor M. Vronskiy architect V. Gnezdylov) [38]. In Vasylkiv, there is only one civil architectural memorial: an administrative building (1817), which housed the headquarters of Chernihiv regiment.


 
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