Started from a small mine settlement, Donets'k has grown into a big administrative, industrial and cultural centre. Donets'k is famous for its scientific achievements.
Donets'k was founded in 1869. Donetsk developed because of the mining and metallurgical industry, and rich stores of minerals.
In the upper region of the Kalmius River there were large deposits of coal, and around the settlement of Alexan-drovka, founded in 1779, first coalmines appeared.
Having estimated all possibilities for making huge profits from cheap coal and cheap labour, foreign concessionaires poured into Donbas. One of them was an English technician-metallurgist John Hughes, the manager of a small plant near London.
In 1869 he settled down on the Kalmius bank and built a smithy that became the first production line of the future metallurgical plant.
The settlement was named Hugh-sofka after the manager's name. Later Hughsofka merged with mining settlement Alexandrivka. By 1874 Hughsofka Metallurgical Plant (today it is Donets'k Metallurgical Plant) ranked the first place in iron-casting among Russia metallurgical enterprises.
In 1899 Machine-Building and Pig-Iron-Casting Plant (today it is Donetsk Machine-Building Plant) was built to produce mining equipment.
In 1924 Hughsifka was renamed Stalino. In 1932 the city became the capital of Donets'k region. Industry developed very rapidly. By 1941 in Stalino there were 223 enterprises of Union and republic subordination. Mines gave 7% of all-Union coal, plants — 5% of steel and 11 % of coke. The population was 507 thousand people.
During the German fascists occupation (from October 21st, 1941, up to September 8th, 1943) the city lost more than half of its inhabitants. The capital of Donbas was utterly destroyed.
The first post-war years were times of rapid economic development. Though damages injured to the city by the war were enormous, already by 1949 the prewar coal output was re-established, and by 1950 the rest of industry was brought up to pre-war standard.
In 1961 Stalino was renamed Donets'k.
Nowadays the city produces equipment, washing machines, refrigerators, bicycles and so on.
Food industry is very well-developed in Donets'k now.
Among higher educational institutions there is well-known Donets'k Medical Institute and Donets'k Poly-technical Institute.
There are three theatres and several museums in the city; among them Donets'k Opera and Ballet Theatre and Donets'k Museum of Fine Arts.
Donets'k is known as "the city of million of roses", and it is true. Actually Donets'k is a very green and beautiful city.